Walker, Daniel S., Flowers underfoot: Indian Carpets of the Mughal Era

Walker, Daniel S., Flowers underfoot: Indian Carpets of the Mughal Era
Metropolitan Museum of Art/H.N.Abrams | 1997 | ISBN: 0870997874/0810965100 | English | PDF | 218 pages | 72.87 Mb

Woollen carpets were known in India as early as 500BC. But it was not until the 16th century, during the reign of the Mughal emperor Akbar, that the first imperial workshops were founded, and began producing carpets whose jewel-like beauty is still breathtaking today. The Mughal emperors were grand patrons of the arts, demanding the highest standards, and their influence is shown in the works of superb quality produced during their reign. Thi scholarly treatment of the subject is published to coincide with a major exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum, New York. Pile-woven carpets of the Mughal era are some of the most technically accomplished of all Oriental carpets. The book surveys these beautiful textiles, their technical characteristics, commerce and the history of the period. Over 70 carpets, some reproduced here for the first time, have been gathered worldwide from museums and private collections; they exemplify the 'classical' period of Indian carpet weaving, which ended around 1800. The text is organized according to style and pattern but also traces the chronological development of carpet design: the Persian style with its fantastic animals and pictorial designs; the flower style in its many variations; and the later designs, including the 'durbar' and the 'millefleur'.
Director's Foreword
Lenders to the Exhibition
Map: India in the Seventeenth Century
1. India During the Mughal Era
2. International Commerce
3. Technical Characteristics
4. The Carpets
The Persian Style
Fantastic-Animal Pattern
Pictorial Designs
Scrolling-Vine-and-Animal Pattern
Scrolling-Vine-and-Blossom Pattern
Fine-Weave Type
The Flower Style
Single-Flower Design
Rows of Flowers or Trees
Lattice-and-Flower Pattern
Lattice-and-Blossom Pattern
Attribution and Provenance
Later Carpet Types
Durbar (Audience) Type
Multiple-Niche Prayer Type (Saph)
The Kyoto Group
Appendix 1
Microscopic Analysis of Animal Fibers Found in Classical Indian and Persian Carpets
Martin N. Youngberg
Appendix 2A
Natural Dyes in the Near and Middle East and India
Harald Böhmer
Appendix 2B
Dye Analysis of Classical Indian and Persian Carpets
Recep Karadag, Nevin Enez, and Harald Böhmer
Checklist of the Exhibition
Photograph Credits